About Newcastle Upon Tyne
Newcastle is a City in Tyne and Wear in the North East of England located on the river Tyne with a population of nearly 200,00 in the City alone. Inhabitants of the local area are collectively known as ‘Geordies,’ historically these descendants were a mix of the indigenous Brittonic-speaking Celtic people and the Germanic settlers along with a Scottish and Irish contingent.
Newcastle’s first recorded history was as a Roman settlement named Pons Aelius, a Roman fort and bridge across the River Tyne in the 2nd century AD. The City derives its name from a Castle built by Robert (II), William the Conqueror's eldest son in 1080 which was referred to as ‘New Castle’.
The city grew as an important centre for the wool trade although it is better known for its coal trade, a result of a Royal Act in 1530, restricting all shipments of coal from Tyneside to Newcastle Quayside, creating a monopoly for a cartel of Newcastle Officials known as the Hostmen. This monopoly helped Newcastle prosper and develop intoa major town over time and had an impact on the fortunes of neighbour Sunderland, causing a rivalry that still exists.
Newcastle played an important role in the Industrial Revolution of the19th Century, becoming a major trading centre for Coal and Manufacturing although these industries had been largely replaced by the latter parts of the twentieth century. Today the City mainly centres around the Office, Service and Retail Industries with the area boasting many major Retail centres.